Details of stem cell

What are stem cells ?
Stem cells refer to those undifferentiated mother cells of a multi cellular organism that give rise to more number of indefinite cells which are of similar type. From the stem cells, certain kinds of cell can arise by the process of differentiation. These cells have the ability to renew themselves of their own. The stem cells can be of blood, brain, heart,skin, bones, muscles etc.

Types of stem cells
Adult Stem cells
These stem cells are found in the tissues of adults. The most common example of adult stem cells is bone marrow. Bone marrow is known to be enriched in stem cells which in turn is used for the treatment of some deadly diseases including cancer.

PS Cells or Pluripotent Stem Cells:
These cells retain the power of dividing for longer period of time. The best popular type of PS stem cell is the one that is present in the embryos which supports the babies for growing and developing in the womb. They are also known as the embryonic stem cells. These cells are usually formed at the blastocyst stage of development.  Blastocysts refer to the hollow ball of cells which is smaller in size than pinheads. The embryonic stem cells stay wihin the blastocysts. Recent studies has revealed that PS stem cells can also be derived from skin cells of adult human being. These cells are known as ips or induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Fatal Stem Cells:
These cells are risen from the tissues of developing human fetus. These cells are also known as pregenitor cells. These cells are have similar kind of characteristics of the tissues from where they are derived. For instance, the ones that are taken from the fetal muscles are capable of making only muscle cells.

Importance of stem cells:
Stem cells are capable of developing into different types of cell in the body during their early life and growth. In a number of tissues, these cells act as a kind of internal repair system which are capable of dividing without limit for the replenishment of other cells till the person is alive. As the stem cells divides, each cell is capable of remaining as a stem cell or becoming another kind of cell which may have a specialized function
How stem cells were discovered:
The potentiality of stem cells were first discovered in the embryos of mouse from more than two decades from today. After years of extensive research, the potentiality of the stem cells were found out in the year of 1998. Scientists have discovered means for isolating stem cells from the embryos of human and growing those cells in the laboratory. such as brain cells, muscle cells etc.  In bone marrow and gut, the stem cells are capable of repairing and replacing damaged or worn out tissues by dividing themselves on a regular basis.
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